Nepal`s development industry, i.e. international agencies and NGOs, Nepalese NGOs, government and bureaucracy, is sklerotic and often ineffective. That doesn`t mean it never works. It seems to be doing it in a certain way. But it sometimes creates or anchors dynamics of injustice or resentment. In the meantime, the development industry has merged with the Nepalese state through such interdependence that a major break seems unlikely. However, tensions and disagreements with international diplomatic partners will lead to complications and slumps. All parties are responsible for the corruption of the sector and, in the worst case, for the insensitivity to what could trigger new conflicts. The Muluki Civil (Code) Act, 2017 (2074) and Muluki Civil Procedure (Code) Act 2017 (2074) (code) come into effect on August 17, 2018. The code makes substantial changes to the contractual and execution formalities of contracts, documents and other documents. The code also repeals the current 2000 Contracts Act and will apply to all legal provisions relating to contracts. Reconstruction efforts must be treated with caution if the humanitarian catastrophe is not to predict dangerous political confusion. Once the immediate crisis is over, an agreement should be reached between the political parties on constitutional issues, so that the conflicts around them have not been the case for years.
It is also important that all parties support – and are not afraid – strong and diverse civic oversight of reconstruction efforts, which can help refine projects and promote greater transparency and trust. Aid measures would have been very difficult for the best informed, foot-footed and best coordinated national and international efforts. Even if the years of international aid for disaster preparedness and earthquakes in Nepal were worth it – they don`t seem to have it – it would still be difficult. Consensus is a sordid word in Nepal, associated with sophists and hypocrisy in the peace process, but unity and, indeed, consensus are indispensable. But it must be a clear, evaluator, open-minded unit. All parties involved, including international companies, must approach different perspectives constructively, rather than imposing compliance for consolation, making divergent opinions socially unacceptable, or proving themselves, no matter what. Many parts of the government, including medical personnel, civil servants and members of the security forces, have worked hard under very difficult conditions. The people of Kathmandu have made extraordinary efforts to relieve the people of Kathmandu, many of whom have been spared the worst consequences of the “great earthquake”. The aid was sent from parts of the country`s Tarai plain and the Nepalese diaspora.
Local leaders have been an important coordination hub in the affected areas. Neighbours Nepal and other countries first sent aid and then worked out the details. The government has tried, just but clumsy, to help Nepal regulate the explosion of institutions and individuals – national and international, legitimate and dubious. International organizations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) already present in the country have sent aid and have tried to coordinate. Everybody wants to help. The Nepalese government and Maoist rebels signed a Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) decreeing the end of ten years of civil war, paving the way for the rebels to be integrated into general politics and the June 2007 elections to draft a new constitution. The agreement has been welcomed by an optimistic public opinion, but its implementation will not be easy: some key issues remain and there is a serious risk that the elections will be delayed, which could weigh on the whole process. The United Nations has great credibility, but it will not last indefinitely, especially if there are delays.